) is a city and district in southwest England, the county city of Gloucestershire.Gloucester lies close to the Welsh border, on the River Severn, between the Cotswolds to the east and the Forest of Dean to the southwest.By the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Gloucester is shown as part of Wessex from the Battle of Deorham in 577 until 584, when it came under the control of Mercia.The name Gloucester derives from the Anglo-Saxon for fort (Old English ceaster) preceded by Celtic name, which derived from the Roman stem Glev- (pronounced glaiw). Its situation on a navigable river, and the foundation in 681 of the abbey of St Peter by Æthelred, favoured the growth of the town; and before the Norman Conquest of England, Gloucester was a borough governed by a portreeve, with a castle which was frequently a royal residence, and a mint.One of the most significant periods in Gloucester's history began in 1378 when Richard II of England convened Parliament in the city.
In the Middle Ages the main export was wool which came from the Cotswolds and was processed in Gloucester; other exports included leather and iron (tools and weapons).
The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries saw the foundation of two of Gloucester's grammar schools: the Crypt School in 1539 and Sir Thomas Rich's School in 1666.
Both still flourish as grammar schools today, along with Ribston Hall and the High School for Girls, Gloucester (Denmark Road).
Gloucester also had a large fishing industry at that time.
In 1223 thatched roofs were banned after a massive fire that destroyed a part of Gloucester.
The story of the Anarchy is vividly told in a series of nineteenth-century paintings by William Burges at the Castle.