Large animals have been mostly exterminated, although herds of antelopes may still be encountered in the savanna and predators—jackals, hyenas, leopards, and cheetahs—are found in the border regions and national parks, the largest of which is the Niokolo Koba Wildlife Park.There are many small rodents, birds, reptiles, and insects, including mosquitoes, termites, and tsetse flies.The Assembly forms from among its members the High Court of Justice, an extraordinary body that is empowered to impeach the president if he commits treason, as well as members of the government who have committed official crimes. Senegal is a flat country lying in a zone of savannas and sparse subequatorial forests.Its surface is a low, slightly rolling plain sloping downward toward the Atlantic.In the southwest mixed deciduous and coniferous forests flourish on red ferruginous soils along the lower course of the Casamance River.Human economic activity has greatly altered the natural vegetation.To the west of the massif, the Mauritanean-Senegalese zone of Baikal folding stretches from north to south.
The oldest formations of the basement, belonging to the Birrimian system of the Lower Proterozoic, crop out in the southeast in the East Senegalese Massif, along with numerous granitoid bodies.
Two large permanent rivers flow through Senegal—the Sénégal in the north and the Casamance in the south; in the east is the upper course of the Gambia River.
Most of the other rivers dry up almost completely during the dry season. In the northern Sahel region, reddish brown soils have developed under desert savanna.
There is a distinct dry season and a rainy season lasting from May to November in the south and from July to September in the north.
The temperature is fairly constant throughout the year, averaging 23°C in January and 28°C in July.
The president determines the country’s domestic and foreign policy, is responsible for national defense, and serves as the supreme commander in chief of the armed forces and as chairman of the High Council of National Defense.